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Published on Sep 05, 2023


• Urine is a typically sterile liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys.

• Major composition of urine is water (97%). Other component of urine are organic & inorganic compounds like urea,bilirubin, ammonium chloride and salts of calcium & potassium .Also they excrete excess hormones & vitamins

 What is Urinalysis? :

• It is the series of test done on urine. It is the one of the most common method of medical diagnostic.

Why Urinalysis

 Most of the blood constituents are present in urine. Most of the body wastes are brought to kidney for filtration. Hence the body ailment can be located through this analysis.

 Most of the bacteria and viruses are discharged from our body through urine.

This method is more convenient than blood test because:

 Some might be scared of blood so this provides to be an alternative for blood tests.

 It is easy to analyze most of the bacteria in water medium than in blood.

Types of urine Specimens


Preservation of Urine :

1. Physical Preservation:

Urine is stored in the refrigerator which doesn’t affect the constituent of urine.

Required Volume:30-45ml taken within 4 minutes

Temperature:32.5ºC to37.7ºC

2. Chemical preservation :

This process is done under following reagents :-

Phenol: causesanodor change

Toluene: noteffectivefor bacteriaand molds

Thymol crystals:preservesglucoseand sedimentswell

Formalin:excellent sediment preservative

Boricacid: preserves proteinwell


Physical Examination :

o Colour :Denotes the degree of concentration. The color of non-pathological urine varies widely from colorless to deep yellow; the more concentrated the urine, the deeper the color. The color of urine is usually described after visual inspection with common color terms.

Examination : Observing the colour .

o PH:Denotes the presence of H+ ion concentration in the content sample.

Examination : Using PH papers .

Materials Required

Urine sample

 Benedict’s solution

 Fehling’s solution – 1

 Fehling’s solution – 2

 Copper sulphate solution

 Sodium hydroxide

 Borsch’s reagent

 Ethanol

 Test tubes

ChemicalExamination :

o Protein Test :

Used to test amount of albumin present in the given content sample . Examination :Done using sodium hydroxide & copper sulphate . This forms thick blue ppt.

o Phenol test :

Used to test the presence of phenol based compounds present in urine . Examination:Mixing the given urine soln. with neutral FeCl3. A light violet colouring is observed .

o Amine test:

This test is used to detect the type of amino group that is excreted through urine . These amines may be primary (1), secondary(2), tertiary(3) .


i) The given sample of urine is taken in a test tube .To the soln. alcoholic KOH is added along with CHCl3 . A foul smelling gas poisonous gas is released (R-CN) . This indicates that the given urine has the presence of 1amine . If there is no smell , then 1amine is absent .

o Carbonyl group test :This test is used to determine the presence of carbonyl group namely KETONES(-CO-) & ALDEHYDES (-CHO) .

Examination :

I. Urine sample is mixed with BORSCH’s reagent , in presence of alcohol it , there forms a yellow ppt. which confirms the presence of carbonyl group .

II. FEHLING TEST : This test is employed to test the presence of reducible groups .

The sample is taken and FEHLING – A(CuSO4) & FEHLING - B (Sodium Potassium Tartrate ) are added and water bathed . Presence of red ppt. (Cu2O)confirms the presence of carbonyl group .

o Confirmatory Test For carbonyl group :

i. TOULENETEST:Given sample is mixed with TOLUENE’s reagent (Ammo. AgNO3) & heated . If The sample doesn’t show any kind of silver mirror then ALDEHYDE is absent

ii. K2Cr2O7TEST :Given urine is mixed with K2Cr2O7and water bathed . If the soln. imparts green colour (CrO3 ion). Then it confirms that there is ALDEHYDE present in the urine sample .

iii. KETONE TEST:The sample urine is mixed with alcohol and SCHIFF’s Base it forms violet colouration . This confirms the presence of Ketone

Blood Glucose Test :

o Benedict’s Solution test :

Sample urine is taken in a test tube and BENEDICT’s solutions is added .This mixture is kept in water bath , after some time it produces colouration depending upon the concentration of glucose .



In the given sample of urine specimen, the values of PH , Blood Glucose level and Protein are the serious one . Higher albumin (protein) & PH level in urine indicates serious trouble in Kidney. The person is also affected by Diabetes


• Class XI practical textbook .